Ionization Inverse Square Law Interaction of RT/Matter Attenuation Coefficient Half-Value Layer Sources of Attenuation -Compton Scattering Geometric Unsharpness Filters in Radiography Scatter/Radiation Control Radiation Safety Radio-carbon dating is a method of obtaining age estimates on organic materials.

How long does the pipe have to be to ensure that there is only 10% of the pollutants left in the kerosene?

This means that we need a pipe that is 10.3 feet long in order for the pollutants to be reduced to 10% of their starting amount.

Radiation counters are used to detect the electrons given off by decaying C-14 as it turns into nitrogen.

The amount of C-14 is compared to the amount of C-12, the stable form of carbon, to determine how much radiocarbon has decayed, thereby dating the artifact.

$$ Time in this equation is measured in years from the moment when the plant dies ($t = 0$) and the amount of Carbon 14 remaining in the preserved plant is measured in micrograms (a microgram is one millionth of a gram).

So when $t = 0$ the plant contains 10 micrograms of Carbon 14.

The two solutions provided differ slightly in their approach in this regard.

The method of carbon dating makes use of the fact that all living organisms contain two isotopes of carbon, carbon-12, denoted 12C (a stable isotope), and carbon-14, denoted 14C (a radioactive isotope).

Archaeologists use the exponential, radioactive decay of carbon 14 to estimate the death dates of organic material.

The stable form of carbon is carbon 12 and the radioactive isotope carbon 14 decays over time into nitrogen 14 and other particles.

One specific example of exponential decay is purified kerosene, used for jet fuel.